Culture and Language

About Singapore - Culture & LanguageAbout Singapore - Culture & LanguageAbout Singapore - Culture & Language

This page covers information on culture and language of Singapore. Understanding the culture and heritage of Singapore, the different races and languages like Singlish.

Singapore Culture

Singapore is a cosmopolitan society where people live harmoniously and interaction among different races are commonly seen. The pattern of Singapore stems from the inherent cultural diversity of the island. The immigrants of the past have given the place a mixture of Malay, Chinese, Indian, and European influences, all of which have intermingled.

Behind the facade of a modern city, these ethnic races are still evident. The areas for the different races, which were designated to them by Sir Stamford Raffles, still remain although the bulk of Singaporeans do think of themselves as Singaporeans, regardless of race or culture. Each still bears its own unique character.

The old streets of Chinatown can still be seen; the Muslim characteristics are still conspicuous in Arab Street; and Little India along Serangoon Road still has its distinct ambience. Furthermore, there are marks of the British colonial influence in the Neo-Classical buildings all around the city.

Each racial group has its own distinctive religion and there are colorful festivals of special significance all year round. Although the festivals are special to certain races, it is nonetheless enjoyed by all.

In Singapore, food is also readily and widely available. There are lots of cuisines to offer. We have, Chinese, Indian, Malay, Indonesian and Western, Italian, Peranakan, Spanish, French, Thai and even Fusion. It is very common to savour other culture's food and some of the food can be very intriguing. Indian food are relatively spicier, whereas Chinese food is less spicier and the Chinese enjoy seafood. Malay cooking uses coconut milk as their main ingredient, that makes their food very tasty.

You can refer to our Eating in Singapore section for a list of recommended food outlets in Singapore.

Religion in Singapore

Most Singaporeans celebrate the major festivals associated with their respective religions. The variety of religions is a direct reflection of the diversity of races living there. The Chinese are predominantly followers of Buddhism, Taoism, Shenism, Christians, Catholics and some considered as 'free-thinkers' (Those who do not belong to any religion). Malays have the Muslims and Indians are Hindus. There is a sizeable number of Muslims and Sikhs in the Indian population.

Religious tolerance is essential in Singapore. In fact, religions often cross racial boundaries and some even merge in unusual ways in this modern country. Younger Singaporeans tend to combine a little of the mysteries of the older generation with the realistic world that they know of today.

Religion is still an integral part of the cosmopolitan Singapore. Many of its most interesting buildings are religious, be it old temples, modern churches, or exotic mosques. An understanding of these buildings do play a part in contributing to the appreciation of their art.

Chinese Temples

Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, and ancestral worship are combined into a versatile mix in Chinese temples.

Followers of the Tao (The Way) adhere to the teachings of the ancient Chinese legend, Lao Tzu. They are concerned with the balance of the Yin and Yang, which are opposite forces of heaven and earth, male and female. Feng Shui, literally translated as wind and water, also originated from Yin and Yang. Ancestral worship is common and the spirits of the dead, like the gods themselves, are appeased with offerings.

Most Buddhists are of the Mahayana school although there are some from the Theravada school. In Singapore, the Buddhist faith is linked with Taoism and the practical doctrine of Confucianism.


The Malays in Singapore are Muslims. A few of the Indians are also Muslims, but even more uncommon are the Chinese Muslims.

Islam has a fundamental influence in the lives of those who follow the Prophet of Allah, Muhammad. The religion involves praying five times a day, eating only "halal" food, fasting during Ramadan, and going to Mecca on the Haj (pilgrimage). Halal food means food that has been specially prepared as according to the religion's dietary requirements.


As the Indian immigrants migrate to Singapore, they brought with them Hinduism. The early temples are still the central points of rituals and festivals, which are held throughout the year.


One will be able to find Christian churches of all denominations in Singapore. They were actually established with the arrival of various missionaries after the coming of Sir Stamford Raffles. Together with Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism, Christianity is considered one of the four main religions today. There is quite a large number of Christians on the island.


Minority faiths are not forgotten. There are at least two synagogues for the Jews and Sikhs. The Zoroastrians and Jains are also represented in Singapore.

Language in Singapore

The four official languages of Singapore are Mandarin, Malay, Tamil and English. English is the most common language used and is the language which unites the different ethnic groups. Children are taught in English at school but also learn their mother tongue to make sure they don't lose contact with their traditions.

Expatriates and foreigners may encounter language problems in the beginning of their stay in Singapore as many Singaporeans use Singlish to communicate. Singlish is a mix of English with other languages mixed into the English, sometimes phrases can end with funny terms like 'lah', 'leh', mah'. Chinese commonly use their own dialects to communicate, and sometimes, inter-dialect groups don't understand one another's language, as the language is vastly different. Except for Hokkien and Teochew, which have a closer link. The Malays use the language among their fellow races and the Indians speak Tamil. But whatever the race or religion, the country's community unite as one nation, where most religious or racial gaps are being bridged.

Singapore English has its origins in the schools of colonial Singapore. In the nineteenth century very few children went to school at all, and even fewer were educated in English. The people who spoke English and sent their children to English medium schools were mainly the Europeans, the Eurasians (people of mixed racial ancestry), some of the small minorities, such as the Jews, some of the Indians and Ceylonese, and also a group of Chinese people usually called the Straits Chinese, who had ancestors of long residence in the region, and who spoke a variety of Malay usually called Baba Malay which was influenced by Hokkien Chinese and by Bazaar Malay.

The fact that all these children would have known Malay probably explains why most of the loan words in Singapore Colloquial English are from Malay. The largest group of teachers were Eurasians, and there were also many teachers from Ceylon and India. European teachers were never more than a quarter of the total teaching staff in a school, and they usually taught the senior classes. These Europeans may have been from Britain (which at that time included Ireland) but were also from the USA, Belgium and France. The children in these schools would have been exposed to many varieties of English.

In the first twenty years of the twentieth century, English medium education became popular for all groups. Girls started going to school in larger numbers too. By the 1950s nearly all children went to school, and the majority were educated in English. By the 1980s. all education was in the medium of English (with children learning another language alongside English).

Singapore English grew out of the English of the playground of these children of various linguistic backgrounds who were learning English at school. As more and more of its people experienced learning English at school, English became widely spoken, alongside Singapore's many other languages. Since Singapore became an independent Republic in 1965, the use of English has increased still further. For many Singaporeans, English is the main language. Many families speak English at home and it is one of the the first languages learnt by about half of the current pre-school children.

Nearly everyone in Singapore speaks more than one language, with many people speaking three or four. Most children grow up bilingual from infancy and learn more languages as they grow up. Naturally the presence of other languages (especially various varieties of Malay and of Chinese) has influenced the English of Singapore. The influence is especially apparent in the kind of English that is used informally, which is popularly called Singlish. Singlish is a badge of identity for many Singaporeans.


Singapore English usually come from other languages spoken in Singapore, especially Malay and Hokkien. Speakers of Singlish are not necessarily aware of which language they are from however.


  • habis - finished
  • makan - to eat
  • chope - to reserve something
  • cheem - difficult, complicated
  • ang mo - a white person
  • rojak - mixed, a mix of
  • liao - finished, the end
  • kiasu - afraid to lose mentality

Speakers of Singlish will usually end his sentence with a distinctive exclamation. The three most common are ah, lah, ley and what.


  • OK lah, bye bye.
  • Don't like that lah.
  • You are going there ah?
  • No parking lots here, what.
  • The price is too high for me lah.
  • And then how many rooms ah?
  • It is very troublesome ley.
  • Don't be like that ley!
  • I'm not at home lah. That's why ah.
Related Page

Re: Singapore Tax Question

Strong Eagle:
A couple of things. If you have a two or more year employment pass, they will grant you resident tax status automatically.

If for some reason they did not, you would be taxed at the non-resident rate the first tax year and you would receive a rebate for the second tax year when you did qualify for the resident rate.

Term of residency is usually from the first valid day of your EP to the last, regardless of when you actually started work.

Re: Non-Competition after Employment

Strong Eagle:
Zeke... look at the contract the muppets offered you... if they can't enforce 12 months, they'll try for 6, and if they can't do that, then 3, then 1. They already know they can't do anything.

They can ask you to pay damages and you can tell them to go piss up a rope. You saw what your lawyer said... do you think that the employer would actually file suit for compensation?

They do this to put the fear in you... it's not about quitting and taking another job they are worried about... they put that crap in there so you won't quit in the first place... that you will be too fearful to move on.

Re: PR has been pending for 6 months (Child of SPR)

Best bet is to move to Indonesia and make your career there. It is a huge country with plenty of opportunity for a fresh young graduate

Re: Non-Competition after Employment

Hello everyone,

Thank you so much for your replies. I did speak with a lawyer at the end and here is her reply in summary:

- Employer should provide reasonable compensation during the non-compete to the employee something that is missing from the contract!
- Employee must hold a fairly senior position in the company that have significant impact on the operations of the business. I am assuming such as directors(?) Something that I am not :)
- The Employer should justify in detail how that clause can protect him.

I have replied to HR accordingly and i am waiting to come back to me.

@Strong Eagle
I understand that they can not stop me from taking another job but i am afraid they might be asking me to pay them "damages" etc

Do you have any links i can check regarding the duration? 3 months is not too bad but 12 months is a suicide.

Do you know of any cases that a company actually harassed ex-employees in Singapore?

I would appreciate more comments from people who have experience on this matter.

Thank you!

Re: UK vote to leave the EU ['BREXIT'] - 23rd June


I don't think it is when measured in other major currencies. Moreover, the FTSE indices aren't exclusively (or even very) U.K. domestic. Multinationals are multinationals, even if they're part of a FTSE index. Burberry, GSK, Diageo, and Intercontinental Hotels -- picking four examples at random -- are truly global companies.

"Remain" campaigners predicted at least near-term market volatility (check) and a weaker pound (check) in the event of an exit vote. Other near-term economic predictions, notably an economic slowdown or recession, won't be known until sometime next year probably. The impact will also depend on where the U.K. looks likely to end up (and how quickly it ends up there). Indicators will include U.K. employment, GDP, and real estate.

Singapore Tax Question

I've a question and hope someone will advise on this.

Based on the IRAS website,
You will be regarded as a non-resident of Singapore for tax purposes if:
If you are here for 61 to 182 days
Your employment income is taxed at 15%

But another page states:-
(See example 2)
If you stay or work in Singapore for a continuous period of at least 183 days straddling two years , you will be regarded as a tax resident for the two years under the two-year administrative concession.
2015 ->3 Nov 2014 to 31 Dec 2014 (59 days) Resident
2016 -> 1 Jan 2015 to 7 May 2015 (127 days) Resident

Under what condition for the two-year administrative concession?
I'm expected to start work from 15 Aug 2016, so how do I calculate this?
How much I'll be paying will be based on which rates?

I've also heard that for expats, usually after about
18 months of working before any tax is paid?

Thanks for the advice!

Re: PR has been pending for 6 months (Child of SPR)

Yes. IT looks like the parents did not think this through. Sorry OP. Cast your net wider. There are many other countries that welcome Indonesians.

Re: Tenancy agreements/leases and your rights as a tenant

Th LL will pay the Stamp Duty (and later recover it in the court). I don't think IRAS cares who pays it. I paid it only once in person (on-line), all earlier cases, it was paid by my agent who I had only a verbal agreement with - in other words he was like an unrelated party.

A legal construct where one party could invalidate the whole agreement by not paying some fees would be something very strange. This would also imply, the other party could not take any action to recover damages resulting from the unpaid fee, because the base document for that action would be invalidated. It just makes no sense.

Here is the page pointing the finger at the tenant: ... tamp-Duty/

I guess, what you quoted is more like a good practice to avoid any future misunderstandings.

Re: EP pass is in Pending status since 4 weeks.

Strong Eagle:

What difference does it make? The general time could be 3 days and yours could be 3 months. Or, the other way around. It's just stupid.

Re: EP pass is in Pending status since 4 weeks.

Strong eagle : Chill sir , noted. My intention is to know general time frame for applications . It's neither to correlate Nor causuate with other applicants.

Codejamster: yeah bro , let's keep fingers crossed.

Re: EP pass is in Pending status since 4 weeks.

Strong Eagle:
Hi ,
I am from India and my EP application is in 7th week pending status.

Employer told few applications are even crossing 9 weeks for approval.

Let us post updates we are getting from employer or media so for others it may be helpful


HOW IS IT HELPFUL? What happens to other applications, or the amount of time they take to process, HAS ABSOLUTELY NOTHING TO DO WITH YOUR APPLICATION, OR THE AMOUNT OF TIME IT TAKES TO PROCESS.

Are you assuming correlation? That if someone else's application takes X weeks, yours should as well? Wrong! They are unrelated events. There is nothing to correlate. Therefore, someone else's wait time is useless information.

Are you assuming causation? That if someone else's application gets approved or disapproved, it means that it will cause the same thing to happen to your application? Wrong? They are unrelated. The outcome of another application can make no difference to your outcome. Therefore, someone else's wait time is useless information.

If this is an example of your logic and reasoning, please, never apply to my company.

Re: EP pass is in Pending status since 4 weeks.

vinayknr, it's with most of us...seems to be a wait game..unfortunately with no deadlines..others still waiting can post too..

Re: 22M - British just moved to Singapore. Looking for friends and travelling partners

Hi !

20F, local.

I'm planning to head to the uk sometime next year for holidays and am really interested in knowing more about the beautiful places to visit there! If you're cool with sharing, do let me know your contact details! Cheers :)

Re: UK vote to leave the EU ['BREXIT'] - 23rd June


Maybe why the FTSE is it's highest since Aug last year despite all the suggested post-BREXIT 'panic'?

p.s/add: Quite WD40, point well made.

Re: Tenancy agreements/leases and your rights as a tenant

That's an interesting point*, although penalties come into it. ... tamp-Duty/
Places I've rented the LL (one time) has always been absolutely sure to get proof I'd paid the SD. Or (twice) they've collected it from me, paid it on my behalf and given me a copy of proof of payment.
Why would the tenant pay any late stamp-duty/penalty in order to facilitate the LL acting against him (if he's not already paid it), if any SD liability/penalty were materially less than the LL was pursuing? Hmmm.
10 months in = up to 4* penalty if it's unpaid to date.

'Who Should Pay Stamp Duty?
Check the terms of the document (e.g. tenancy agreement) to determine who is contractually required to pay the Stamp Duty. ...The party who is liable to pay Stamp Duty is usually stated in the agreements. For example, if you rent a property, the tenancy agreement should state who is liable to pay Stamp Duty.' ... tamp-Duty/

But as PNG said, without the background facts, who knows what the situation it...